Chinese Ch'i Kung
Ch'i (also spelled Chi or Qi) is a fundamental concept in Chinese philosophy and culture. Found in Chinese traditional religion but especially Taoism, Ch'i literally means "air" or "breath," but as a concept it refers to the energy flow or life force that is said to pervade all things.
The nature of ch'i has always been a matter of debate in Chinese thinking. Some believe ch'i is a separate force from the physical world, while others think ch'i comes from physical matter. Still others, especially Chinese Buddhists and Taoists, hold that matter arises from ch'i.
The quality, quantity and balance of Ch'i is believed to be essential to maintaining health and achieving a long life. One author explains it this way:
In addition to living a healthy life (both physically and psychologically), Ch'i can be regulated through practices like breath control, Ta'i Chi, massage and acupuncture. Nearly all techniques in traditional Chinese medicine are based on the concept of Ch'i.
Breath control is considered especially fundamental to balancing the levels of Ch'i in one's body. Controlled and meditative breathing, called hsing-ch'i, allows ch'i to permeate the entire body by imagining the breath as a visible current moving through the body. Another type of breathing exercise, t'ai-hsi, attempts to revert one's breathing to that of an fetus in the womb. This is considered especially powerful for longevity and immortality (especially in Taoism).
The traditional Chinese art of placement and arrangement of space called Feng Shui is also based on the flow of ch'i, as well as the five elements, yin and yang and other factors. The retention or dissipation of ch'i is believed to affect the health, wealth, energy level, luck and many other aspects of the occupants of the space. Color, shape and the physical location of each item in a space affects the flow of ch'i by slowing it down, redirecting it or accelerating it, which directly affects the ch'i of the occupants.
Theories of traditional Chinese medicine assert that the body has natural patterns of Ch'i that circulate in channels called meridians in English. Symptoms of various illnesses are often believed to be the product of disrupted, blocked, or unbalanced Ch'i movement (interrupted flow) through the body's meridians, as well as deficiencies or imbalances of Ch'i (homeostatic imbalance) in the various organs. Traditional Chinese medicine often seeks to relieve these imbalances by adjusting the circulation of Ch'i (metabolic energy flow) in the body using a variety of therapeutic techniques.
The traditional Chinese art of geomancy, the placement and arrangement of space called fengshui, is based on calculating the balance of Ch'i, interactions between the five elements, yin and yang and other factors. The retention or dissipation of Ch'i is believed to affect the health, wealth, energy level, luck and many other aspects of the occupants of the space.
Ch'i is a didactic concept in many Chinese, Korean and Japanese martial arts. Martial qigong is a feature of both internal and external training systems in China and other east Asian cultures.